Updated Jun 26, 2022 1:35 PM
Whether we’re in the middle of nature or in the comfort of our own homes, biting bugs can wreak havoc on humans and pets, so effective insect repellant is the first defense. It’s a proactive way to keep the rude critters away before these scores of Davids leave their mark on our sensitive Goliath skin … or do even more serious damage. But it can be overwhelming to browse through rows of sprays, lotions, wipes, bracelets, and even electronic bug control options. We’re here to help you find the best insect repellents that really, genuinely work.
How we chose the best insect repellents
What do solar generators, tents, and coolers have in common? They’re all things you enjoy outdoors—or at least you should enjoy outdoors, insect adversaries allowing. That’s why we’d argue that effective repellent is one of the most important things you can pack on a camping trip—without it, you’d be itchy, uncomfortable, and putting yourself at risk of getting a bug from a bug. We turned to reviews, recommendations, and user testing to find the best insect repellents.
What to consider when buying the best insect repellents
So how do you go about choosing the best insect repellent your money can buy? There’s a wide variety, which vary in effectiveness, application style, and whether their effects are scientifically proven. (Mosquito repellent bracelets, for example, are an option but experts are not unanimously sold on their effectiveness.)
Before settling on any product, it’s important to read the label and look for one of three key ingredients: DEET, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and picaridin. Some experts are less than enthusiastic about natural insect repellents, like citronella, because their active ingredients aren’t as effective. That doesn’t make them useless, but they’re not ideal as a primary protector; they’re best used in tandem with the stronger stuff. Also, beware of products that combine sunscreen and bug repellent. Since sunscreen has to be reapplied every few hours, you’ll risk overexposing yourself to the chemicals in repellent.
When applying insect control, be sure you cover only exposed body parts, using only the recommended dose. Keep it away from cuts and bruises and, when using it on your face, rub it in using your hands and avoid touching your eyes, mouth, and ears. At the end of the day, wash it off using soap and water, and if you’ve sprayed it onto your clothing, keep them in a separate wash pile. The best insect repellent is also often some pretty harsh stuff: it can damage leather, vinyl, and some synthetics, so proceed with caution when applying bug spray directly to fabric.
DEET vs. picaridin
DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, in case you needed to know for a Jeopardy! question or bar trivia) is the most widely used active ingredient in insect repellent, and it offers a strong defense against mosquitoes, ticks, and some flies. The amount used in most products ranges between 10 percent and 100 percent, with a protection time of two hours to 10. The level of protection maxes out at a concentration of 30 percent, with higher levels only increasing the protection time. Control-release DEET can keep working for up to 12 hours.
DEET, which was developed by the United States Army during the 1940s, is perfectly safe to use if you follow the instructions that come with it. It’s considered the old faithful of the best insect repellent, but you have to be sure to handle it carefully and keep it away from your sunglasses and trekking pole grips since it doesn’t always mix well with plastics. It can also cause some temporary numbness in your lips if it comes into contact with them, so be careful when applying.
Picaridin is the synthetic version of a repellent found in pepper plants, and it’s often mentioned alongside DEET as a prime active ingredient in insect repellent. The maximum protection of picaridin is reached at 20 percent concentration, with spray and lotion forms providing different lengths of protection. In insect repellent spray, it can keep you covered against mosquitoes and ticks for 12 hours and flies for eight. In lotion form, it can protect you from mosquitoes and ticks for 14 hours and flies for eight.
Picaridin has a few advantages over the older competitor, DEET. When dealing with mosquitoes and ticks, picaridin is similarly effective as DEET, and it’s actually a bit more effective on flies. Picaridin also has less of an odor, and when used in the best insect repellent, it doesn’t do any damage to plastics and other synthetics.
Can kids use insect repellent?
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, insect repellent used on children should not contain any more than a 30 percent concentration of DEET, and insect repellent shouldn’t be used at all on babies younger than two months. Picaridin is also generally safe to use on children, though it can irritate their eyes and skin. To avoid exposing kids to these fairly serious chemicals, you might want to consider an alternative like essential oil insect repellent, but keep in mind that repellents with plant oils as a main active ingredient offer fewer hours of protection than DEET and picaridin products.
To further protect babies from the effects of bugs outdoors, cover their strollers with netting. When applying the best insect repellent to children, adults should follow the same safety guidelines when applying it to themselves.
How do I protect my pets from insects?
Collars, pills, chewables, and drops provide pets with varying levels of pest protection. DEET can be toxic to dogs, especially in large quantities, so it’s best to avoid using DEET insect repellent on dogs, or even on yourself if you’re hanging out with a dog. (They do like to lick skin, remember.) Natural bug repellent is a safer option, but some essential oils are harmful to dogs, so it’s a good idea to check with your veterinarian before using any of them.
The safe list for dogs generally includes citrus, soybean oil, and geranium oil, and you can apply those to their coat or collar. Another option is filling your yard with plants like basil, catnip, lavender, lemon balm, peppermint, and rosemary as a mosquito repellent for dogs. But dog owners beware: Plants such as geranium, citronella, and garlic can be dangerous if eaten by dogs, and if you have a cat, essential oils can be especially toxic, causing an upset stomach and damage to the liver and central nervous system.
How much will you have to pay for bug protection?
The best insect repellent won’t set you back very much—if it’s designed for humans. Solid options can be found for under $10. But specially formulated bug control for pets tends to be a bit more expensive; it can even approach the $100 range. Home systems can also get pricey, and can go for around $600-$700 dollars.
The best insect repellents: Reviews & Recommendations
The best insect repellents will help you reduce your calamine lotion and anti-itch cream use. Here are the ones we found:
Best overall: Thermacell E55 Rechargeable Mosquito Repeller
Why it made the cut: No application is required for this wide-range tabletop bug repellent.
- Volume: .33 fluid ounces
- Form: Liquid
- Scent: No
- Active ingredient: Metofluthrin
- No application
- Long-range coverage
- Reviews say refills tend to deplete quickly
This rechargeable mosquito repeller from Thermacell gives you a 20-foot protection zone. Its refills are long-lasting (from 12 to 40 hours), and the spray-free design makes for a more comfortable gathering. One charge gets you 5.5 hours of continuous mosquito protection. The metofluthrin-based repellent is scent-free and has been independently tested and EPA-reviewed for safety. Additionally, it’s covered by a two-year warranty that can be extended an extra year with item registration.
Best picaridin: Sawyer Products 20% Picaridin Insect Repellent
Why it made the cut: Get 14 hours of protection against bugs with this non-greasy, non-scented lotion bug repellent.
- Volume: 4 fluid ounces
- Form: Lotion
- Scent: No
- Active ingredient: Picaridin
- Repels ticks
- Spray not as effective as lotion
This bug repellent is completely fragrance-free and offers a stronger defense against biting flies than most DEET products. The lotion offers longer-lasting protection on skin, while the pump spray lingers longer on clothing. The lotion protects from mosquitos for up to 14 hours and provides eight hours of protection against flies and gnats. The spray provides 12 hours of protection against mosquitos and the same level of protection against flies and gnats. It is non-greasy and dries quickly. Additionally, it won’t damage synthetic coatings, and you can use the spray on clothing, backpacks, and more.
Best for babies: Cutter Mosquito Wipes
Why it made the cut: These wipes make putting on bug repellent quick and easy for more playtime.
- Volume: N/A
- Form: Wipes
- Scent: Yes
- Active ingredient: DEET
- Clean scent
These wipes use a 7.15 percent DEET-based formula to keep mosquitoes away. They’ve got a cooling, clean scent, and don’t feel sticky, greasy, or oily on the skin. You can use them on your face, ears, and neck, which usually go untreated. A resealable packet keeps them moist and allows you to take them on the go. They repel against mosquitoes, deer ticks, gnats, biting flies, fleas, and chiggers. You can use it on children two months and older. And, DEET will not damage nylon, cotton, or wool, but it can damage some synthetic fabrics. You’ll have to buy multiple packages for heavy use since each pack only contains 15 wipes.
Best premium: Thermacell LIV Smart Mosquito Repellent System
Why it made the cut: Get on-demand protection season after season with this yard system.
- Volume: N/A
- Form: Liquid
- Scent: No
- Active ingredient: Metofluthrin
- Wide coverage
- Customizable placement
Protect your entire backyard from mosquitos this summer with the LIV Smart Mosquito Repellent System. You can choose between three, four, or five repellers to place around your property lines, and each kit includes a smart hub, mounts, 24-foot cables, and ground stakes. The amount you receive of each depends on the size of the kit you purchase. Each repellent can last for 40 hours and uses scent-free, heat-activated metofluthrin as its active ingredient. The Smart Hub connects multiple repellers and can be controlled using the LIV+ app. The kits are expensive to purchase (it ranges from $699-$899) and the refills are pricey too—as a six-pack is $120. However, if you want to eradicate bugs from your outdoor entertainment spaces, it might be a worthy investment.
Best for dogs: Wondercide Flea, Tick, and Mosquito Spray
Why it made the cut: This plant-based insect repellent smells great and keeps your pooch pest-free.
- Volume: 4 fluid ounces; 16 fluid ounces; 32 fluid ounces, 1 gallon
- Form: Spray
- Scent: Yes: Lemongrass; peppermint; rosemary; cedarwood
- Active ingredient: Essential oils
- Not harmful to your pet
- Wide variety of sizes
- The scent might irritate skin
This flea and tick control is so much more than an insect killer. It uses pet-safe plant-based essential oils to combat pests at all stages of their life cycle. As an added bonus, it won’t harm birds, bees, and butterflies that eat insects that have been treated with the product. You can use it on your pooch, or you can use it on yourself. If your pet has sensitive skin—especially cats—the scent might irritate your pet. Bathe your pet in soap and discontinue use if your pet experiences a negative reaction.
Best budget: OFF! Deep Woods Insect & Mosquito Repellent
Why it made the cut: This long-lasting, non-greasy insect repellent comes in a two-pack for more bang for your buck.
- Volume: 4 fluid ounces
- Form: Aerosol
- Scent: Lemon
- Active ingredient: DEET
- High DEET concentration
- Non-greasy feel
- Scent not overpowering
- Propellant can leave a white residue on clothes
This DEET OFF insect repellent approaches the maximum level of protection with a concentration of 25 percent, and it’s especially effective at repelling deadly and/or annoying mosquitoes, along with ticks, biting flies, gnats, and chiggers for long periods of time. Its powder-dry insect-repelling formula protects without feeling oily or greasy, and its lemon scent is light and pleasant. Use caution when spraying on or near fabrics, as its included propellant can leave a white residue. It can be washed off easily, however.
Q: What is the most effective insect repellent?
The most effective insect repellent will contain either DEET or picaridin as an active ingredient. DEET has been in use for longer and is more effective as a tick repellent, while picaridin provides a stronger defense against flies. Picaridin also has a milder odor and doesn’t dissolve plastics, as DEET can.
Q: What is the most effective natural insect repellent?
The most effective natural insect repellent is probably lemon eucalyptus oil. It is the essential oil cited most frequently by experts; a 32 percent solution can provide 95 percent protection against them for three hours. Citronella, on the other hand, has a minimal effect at best, when you’re talking about candles and torches.
Q: What smell do mosquitoes hate the most?
The smell mosquitoes hate the most is a relatively lengthy list that includes DEET, lavender, peppermint, citronella, garlic, lime, basil, clove oil, and eucalyptus. Considering how many things they hate, it’s clear they really must love biting humans to overcome all of those scents!
Final thoughts on the best insect repellents
The best insect repellent is likely to include one of the two power ingredients, those being DEET and picaridin. It doesn’t take a high concentration of either to maximize bug control, but the higher the concentration, the longer you’ll be protected. Natural insect repellent is an alternative to these, but they’re not always as effective. Since DEET poses a danger to dogs, natural bug repellents are a better pet option, but you have to be careful to stay away from toxic plants and essential oils that might threaten their health.